Ambrosia FUNGUS Taxonomy


This flow graph shows the relatively complex and intertwined taxonomic history of Raffalea and Ambrosiella and their related ambrosial genera.

All currently valid ambrosia fungi

Accurate, to the best of my ability, as of March 2024. For now this is just a simple list. In future, I'd like to add more information and linked references for the taxa.


 Family Ophiostomataceae

The current best treatment of this group is:

 de Beer ZW, Procter M, Wingfield MJ, Marincowitz S, Duong TA, 2022. Generic boundaries in the Ophiostomatales reconsidered and revised. Studies in Mycology 101:57-120.


Afroraffaelea (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

1 species

Afroraffaelea ambrosiae

Dryadomyces (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

5 species

Dryadomyces amasae <- type species

Dryadomyces montetyi

Dryadomyces quercivora

Dryadomyces quercus-mongolicae

Dryadomyces sulphurea

Harringtonia (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

7 species

Harringtonia aguacate

Harringtonia ambrosioides

Harringtonia arthroconidialis

Harringtonia brunnea

Harringtonia chlamydospora

Harringtonia lauricola <- type species

Harringtonia sporodochialis

Raffaelea (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

21 species

Raffaelea albimanens

Raffaelea ambrosiae <- type species

Raffaelea arxii

Raffaelea borbonica

Raffaelea campbelliorum

Raffaelea canadensis

Raffaelea crossotarsi

Raffaelea cyclorhipidii

Raffaelea ellipticospora

Raffaelea fusca

Raffaelea gnathotrichi

Raffaelea promiscua

Raffaelea rapaneae

Raffaelea santoroi

Raffaelea scolytodis

Raffaelea seticollis

Raffaelea subalba

Raffaelea subfusca

Raffaelea sulcati

Raffaelea tritirachium

Raffaelea xyleborini


Excluded Raffaelea species (de Beer et al. 2022) that have not yet been formally treated in another genus

Raffaelea deltoideospora

Raffaelea vaginata



 Family Ceratocystidaceae

The current best treatment of this group is:


Mayers CG, Harrington TC, Masuya H, Jordal BH, McNew DL, Shih HH, Roets F, Kietzka GJ, 2020. Patterns of coevolution between ambrosia beetle mycangia and the Ceratocystidaceae, with five new fungal genera and seven new species. Persoonia 44:41-66.


Ambrosiella (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

10 species

Ambrosiella batrae

Ambrosiella beaveri

Ambrosiella catenulata

Ambrosiella cleistominuta

Ambrosiella grosmanniae

Ambrosiella hartigii

Ambrosiella nakashimae

Ambrosiella remansi

Ambrosiella roeperi

Ambrosiella xylebori <- type species

Meredithiella (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

3 species

Meredithiella fracta

Meredithiella guianensis

Meredithiella norrisii <- type species

Phialophoropsis (whole genus ambrosia fungi)

5 species

Phialophoropsis ferruginea

Phialophoropsis hubbardii

Phialophoropsis leachii

Phialophoropsis nunbergii

Phialophoropsis trypodendri <- type species

Toshionella (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

3 species

Toshionella nipponensis <- type species

Toshionella taiwanensis

Toshionella transmara

Wolfgangiella (whole genus is ambrosia fungi)

2 species

Wolfgangiella franznegeri <- type species

Wolfgangiella madagascarensis



Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC)

Fusarium is a huge genus with hundreds of species. One specific clade within “clade 3” of the Fusarium solani part of the genus is called the “ambrosia Fusarium clade” or AFC. The AFC are true ambrosia fungi. Keep in mind that non-ambrosial Fusarium species are common surface associates of bark and ambrosia beetles, and also often misidentified as ambrosia mutualists, so be very careful especially with old literature.


There is no comprehensive treatment on the species. There are technically 19 recognized species that were originally given temporary “AF” designations, but only 11 have been named so far. It’s common to still use the AF numbers even with the named species, and they’re used below.


The foundational study for this group is:


Kasson MT, O’Donnell K, Rooney AP, Sink S, Ploetz RC, Ploetz JN, Konkol JL, Carrillo D, Freeman S, Mendel Z, Smith JA, 2013. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts. Fungal Genetics and Biology 56:147-57.


11 named species

Fusarium ambrosiae (AF-1)

Fusarium euwallaceae (AF-2)

Fusarium floridanum (AF-3)

Fusarium oligoseptatum (AF-4)

Fusarium tuaranense (AF-5)


Fusarium obliquiseptatum (AF-7)

Fusarium duplospermum (AF-8)


Fusarium drepaniforme (AF-10)

Fusarium papillatum (AF-11)

Fusarium kuroshium (AF-12)







Fusarium rekanum (AF-19)




Geosmithia is mostly a genus of air-dispersed fungi that are very common in wood and growing on the surface of insects. Three species seem to be good candidates for being ambrosia fungi.


3 species

Geosmithia cnesini

Geosmithia microcorthyli

Geosmithia eupagioceri


Irpex subulatus

Irpex is mostly a genus of wood decay basidiomycetes that make resupinate (crust) basidiocarps on wood.


A single species is farmed as an ambrosia fungus by punky wood borer beetles. It was originally called Flavodon ambrosius in recognition of this, but was later found to have already been named a long time ago, so was returned to that original name: F. subulatus. It was later transferred to Irpex. It’s the only known basidiomycete ambrosia fungus.


Diatrypella japonica

Diatrypella is mostly a genus of tree pathogens that make surface cankers with perithecia. This species alone seems to be a domesticated ambrosia fungus, very recently discovered.


Kaarikia abrahamsonii

The only species in its genus, and not particularly closely related to any other known fungus. Farmed as an ambrosia fungus by a single species, where it’s carried (in separate mycangia) alongside a Raffaelea ambrosia fungus. Hypothesized to be a “living fossil” of ancient ambrosia fungi that are otherwise extinct.